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After its rebuilding, Santo Domingo was known officially as Ciudad Trujillo in honor of dictator Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, who governed from 1930.
Following his assassination in 1961 the city was renamed back to Santo Domingo.
Over the next two-thirds of a century Santo Domingo and the Dominican Republic went through many revolutions, power changes, and occupation by the United States, 1916–24.
The city was struck by hurricane San Zenón in 1930, which caused major damage.
Founded by Bartholomew Columbus in 1496, on the east bank of the Ozama River and then moved by Nicolás de Ovando in 1502 to the west bank of the river, the city is the oldest continuously inhabited European settlement in the Americas, and was the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World.
Santo Domingo is the site of the first university, cathedral, castle, monastery, and fortress in the New World.
An expedition sent by Oliver Cromwell in 1655 attacked the city of Santo Domingo, but was defeated.
Following his assassination, the city resumed its original designation.These were ruled respectively by caciques (chiefs) Guacanagarix, Guarionex, Caonabo, Bohechío, and Cayacoa.Dating from 1496, when the Spanish settled on the island, and officially from 5 August 1498, Santo Domingo became the oldest European city in the Americas.From 1795 to 1822 the city changed hands several times along with the colony it headed.The city was ceded to France in 1795 after years of struggles, it was briefly captured by Haitian rebels in 1801, recovered by France in 1802, and was once again reclaimed by Spain in 1809.